Modern vs. Medieval Architecture: A Comparison

Modern vs. Medieval Architecture: A Comparison

Centuries ago, landscape architecture incorporated the use of gardens for plant cultivation, observation of the beautiful nature, basking, pottering and as a playground for children. Today, gardens are a form of art and are cultivated as a hobby. It is therefore clear that the landscape architecture has greatly evolved over time and shifted its focus towards more sustainable structures.

Medieval Architecture

Medieval Architecture

During the middle ages, (about 8000 years ago), humans began to develop complex social systems in the form of early civilisations. These civilisations cropped up in Egypt, Mesopotamia, South America, India and Asia among many others. At this point, the principal focus of landscape architecture was physical and spiritual comfort. Hence, gardens were used for religious purposes, harmony with nature, bird watching and basking.

In England, the medieval architecture combined the use of both wood and stone. During the Norman period, the designers copied the architecture of the Roman Empire. It consisted of great halls, curved arches, great cathedrals, vaults and patterned floors. Over the years, the architecture evolved into a gothic style that seemed to copy Islamic buildings.

Medieval parks in England were private spaces that were mainly dedicated to hunting animals such as deers, for timber, for grazing the animals and for pasture. The parks surrounded the castles and palaces and were to be visible to the royal family. Small parks were also developed for aesthetic purposes; however, they were the minority. These gardens were used for spiritual purposes and for general emotional and spiritual well-being.

Some of the plants that were grown included the pomegranate tree which was a religious symbol to the Christians here.

Modern Architecture

Modern Architecture

Modern landscape architecture, on the other hand, can be very minimalistic in nature and monochromatic or more natural. Landscape architects must conduct a site analysis and build a model design that makes the best use of the space.

The design of the gardens is usually both indoors and outdoors and incorporates the use of shapes and pots. These gardens also boast of ponds and sculptures that are strategically located for the best aesthetics. The plants grown in these spaces may have medicinal purposes or may be used in cooking simple meals at home. Some of the plants and herbs that are grown in these gardens include mint leaves, bay leaves, fennel, oregano, bamboo, and ferns. Fruit trees are at times grown to substitute the use of a wall. Some of the fruit plants grown are cherries, apples, and mangoes. Colourful flowers are also used to decorate the garden space. The plants are usually arranged in aesthetically appealing shapes depending on the shape and size of the garden. At times, colourful pots are used to grow the plants.

On a larger scale, landscape architecture usually involves large public spaces such as campuses, shopping centres, play grounds, walking trails and recreation centres. In addition to design work and planning, landscape architects must put in place pest control and safety measures.

A Comparison of Modern Day Landscaping and Medieval Times Landscaping

A Comparison of Modern Day Landscaping and Medieval Times Landscaping

Landscape architecture has evolved since medieval times, and we have seen various changes regarding landscaping. As technology advances, we have seen various improvements in various aspects. These all aim at discovering better ways of doing things and hence a better experience for the people. Here are some of the notable changes that have taken place in landscape architecture.

Discovery of Better Architectural Drawing Technologies

Architectural Drawing Technologies

During the medieval times, landscaping architecture was done as a poorly sketched diagram. Amazingly, the landscapers were still able to interpret the drawings and came up with appropriate results that suited the times. As times went, technology started changing and as building architecture diagrams were evolving, the same was taking place in the landscaping environment. Therefore, the landscapers in the middle century had better architectural diagrams than those used in the medieval times. In the 20th century, it is possible to do a landscaping architecture diagram within a few hours.  Through this, people are able to achieve quicker and faster results as compared to medieval times.

Smaller Land Is Available in Modern Landscaping

The modern-day landscapers are faced with more challenges which are times hard to tackle. Compared to the mediaeval times, there was a larger space that could be utilised as the population was smaller then. However, the modern landscapers are forced to use the little available space economically to make sure space is enough for the many things they want to do with it. This is because of increased population. Both the residential areas in urban and rural areas have become smaller than used to be. The urban population is also growing rapidly leading to demand better utilisation of space. This has led to the start of various courses that are driven towards making sure the land is economically used. There are also advanced technologies that are aiming at ensuring a better economic use of space.

Advanced Designs in Landscaping

Advanced Designs in Landscaping

People have become better skilled, and this has led to advanced designs. The architectural designs are accommodating better landscaping designs in the modern-day landscaping. This is compared to the medieval times landscaping where landscaping involved simpler designs. Therefore, people are able to achieve more sophisticated designs than was the case in the medieval times.

Better Machinery Is Used in Modern Day Landscaping Than in Medieval Times

In the medieval times, people did not have advanced machinery like they have in the modern days. Therefore, it was often done using human labour and other inefficient tools meaning it took a long time to do landscaping than it takes in the modern-day landscaping. In the modern day landscaping, there are better tools which means that landscaping can be done faster than was the case in medieval times. The earth movers are a good example of some of the machines that are used in the modern day making it a good venture.

These are some of the differences between medieval times landscaping and modern-day landscaping. As times progress and mode discoveries are being made, we will see better landscaping methods being discovered and hence these changes will go on.

Top 5 Gardening Tools

It is important to have the right top 5 gardening tools to make the process of maintaining and planting your garden easier. Having the right tools also will make it more enjoyable and easier on your physically. Gardening is a relaxing and therapeutic way for people to spend time outdoors cultivating the beauty of nature.

As we look at the tools we often come across as we go about our duties in the garden, we have come to the understanding of which are most important in our collection. Below we look at those we feel make the difference and are must have’s for the recreational gardener.

Clearing Tools

Clearing tools are an integral part of maintaining your garden. They are versatile and designed to allow you to trim bushes, stems, vines, branches and roots. They help you to prevent overgrowth and maintain a proper balance within your garden. When purchasing clearing tools, it is best to purchase those that are rugged, designed to be resistant to rust and easy to use efficiently.

Shovel for Digging

If you were to ask anyone who has ventured into gardening, it is a safe bet to suggest a good shovel is one that they highly recommend and we agree. They are needed for many applications within your garden from digging a hole, mixing soil and spreading soil when adding and maintaining your garden. The design of shovels has come a long way since its earlier days and is ergonomically designed, made of steel, and sturdy enough so that it will not bend under pressure.

Spade for Edging

A spade for edging is another in our top 5 list. An edging spade will allow you to edge around flower beds, trees beds, driveways and sidewalks edges and more. They may also be used when undertaking various planting tasks. Ideally, for comfort, purchase one with a rubber pad as this will make it more comfortable on your foot.


Shears are perfect for when you need to cut branches or bushes. Shears will allow for you to cut branches that are up to 1.5 inches in diameter and are designed to let the tool itself do the work versus brute strength. They range in size, and it is ideal to have several within your collection so as to allow you flexibility when needed.


When you need to maintain your flower beds and remove dead deadheads, small stems and twigs, pruners are the perfect solution. They are an excellent multi-purpose gardening tool that any respectable gardener will not be without. Pruners are designed more for gentle use and not cutting stems bigger than a half an inch in diameter.

Pruning Saw

A pruning saw is another in our top 5 must have’s. They come in a variety of sizes and are used when the need arises to prune branches that are too large for shears or smaller pruning tools. Many are designed to be compact and versatile; ideally, have several in varying sizes so as the task is easier based on the job at hand.

The Growth of Modern Architecture

The Growth of Modern Architecture

Modern architecture also commonly known as modernism refers to architecture that arose from early in the 20th century but was fully embraced after the World War 2. The change was brought about by industrial revolution where technology was embraced leading to the use of different materials in constructing buildings and structures. However, it is not until later when the changes started being seen all over Europe and America where the most accomplished modernists started crating different structures using the newly discovered building materials. It is from this change that paved way to some of the most magnificent and big buildings located all over the world.

Modern Architecture in Europe

The Growth of Modern Architecture2

Before the architectural revolution started, there were a lot of changes in terms of construction materials with the invention of cast iron, reinforced concrete, and the most exciting plate glass. These changes inspired the architectures at the time to use them to create great structures such as the crystal palace which was constructed using plate glass and cast iron in 1851.

Francis Coignet became the first architecture to use concrete that was reinforced with iron in construction and in 1853 he constructed the first iron reinforced building which was four stories near Paris. The elevator invention in 1852 made it easier and practical to envision longer buildings since there was a way to reach them.

In the early 20th century, the use of reinforced concrete moved from constructing industrial buildings to residential houses where the technology was used in constructing apartments. The concrete offered more opportunities ad designs for the architectures to explore while creating buildings that were stronger and more beautiful.

Modernism in America

The Growth of Modern Architecture

Modern architecture in America was started by the likes of Frank Lloyd Wright who came up with the first tall building that was steel framed. He went ahead and created some of the well-known architectural masterpieces such as Prairie and Robie Houses. He pioneered using different designs and materials to create buildings that were a lot different from anything that existed at the time.

By this time the first sky scrapers were being constructed using a steel frame. They began due to the realisation that there was need for more space yet the land wasn’t enough. The home insurance building was among the first sky scrapers to be put up at 10 stories high. This continued up until early 20th century where the Woolworths building was constructed, and at the time it was the tallest in the world.

The modernism trend continued spreading to more parts of the world such as Russia and in Germany where the Bauhaus was constructed making it one of the most popular modern structures at the time. By mid-20th century creativity had taken center stage, and there was a blend between art and architecture which has seen some of the most beautiful buildings being constructed. Since then modern architecture has grown so much with a lot of mistakes being made which has led to the current buildings now with some of the tallest buildings being constructed all over the world.

A Short History of the Taj Mahal Garden

A Short History of the Taj Mahal Garden

It is quite rare that a public garden will stimulate our senses and capture our imagination. Some of them include Villa D-Este, Nishat Baugh, Central Park and the more recent Parc Andre Citroen, which are all magnificent landscape architecture project. Another popular setting would be the Taj Mahal. The Mughal Garden has highlighted the love of Jahangir on gardening and landscape design.

An Overview of the Taj Mahal

The religion of Muslim has introduced different types of building in India. Among them was a structure in octagon form that is designed to house the tomb of prominent personalities. The Taj Mahal is situated on the bank of Yamuna River that is nestled at the expansive Mughal Garden. The structure was constructed by Shah Jahan to honour his wife. The construction started in the year 1632 which was completed at around 1648. Eventually, the cloisters and the outer courtyard have been introduced in 1653.

The Taj Mahal has been considered as the most significant architectural achievement in the state of Indo-Islamic Architecture. The perfect combination of light shadow, convex, and concave, voids, and solids has been recognised as a prime example of architectonic beauty. The domes and the arches of the structure have further magnified the aesthetic appeal of the structure.

The Mughal Garden of Taj Mahal

A Short History of the Taj Mahal Garden

Taj Garden has become an integral part of the Taj Mahal that serves as the highlight of your visit in this travel destination. It is filled with green leaves, chirping birds, plentiful fruits, and attractive flowers. It is also referred to as the Paradise Garden that covers a total area of 300x300m.

The gardens found in Taj Mahal have followed the concept of 4 which is known as the holiest number on the Islam religion. The place has been divided into 4 blocks which has been adorned with a glorious fountain that serves as the focal point of the garden. There are around 16 flowerbeds in every quarter that divided the raised lanes. There are around 400 flowers found in every flowerbed. The various elements in the garden have been arranged in a symmetrical form. The trees in the garden also carry meaning; for instance, the fruit-bearing tree signifies life and the Cyprus indicated death.

The northern edge of the structure has been occupied in order to create an elegant garden. At the heart of the garden, the elevated marble lotus that has been highlighted with cusped border has intensified the beauty of the garden. The clear image of the Taj Mahal has been reflected into its water. The waterways have also been arranged to in a manner that will give the visitors with a breathtaking view of the mausoleum. It is well-maintained that delivers the natural scene that offers a perfect photo ops.

The balanced proportion of the entire area emanates peacefulness. Shah Jahan has created the entire place to reward the spirit of his wife with a palace. The landscape architecture of Taj Mahal has captured the heart of the visitor and inspired other masterpiece particularly in Europe.

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

Landscape architecture is an environment based profession that involves designing, planning and managing the land around us. Professionals in this field must have a deep appreciation of the natural environment. They work hand in hand with architects, engineers, and city planners to tastefully design parks, gardens, educational institutions, shopping centres and other developments. Today, landscape architectures pay specific attention to projects that combat global warming. These include green roofing, healing gardens, and methods to save energy consumption.

Castles in England

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

Consisting of tastefully designed gardens and beautiful waterfront developments, castles in England are probably some of the best examples of landscape architecture in the world. These historical landscapes, some of which date back to several hundred years back have been preserved courtesy of the work done by landscape architects.

Leeds Castle

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

The Leeds Castle in Kent is one of the most magnificent castles ever built. Constructed in 1119, the castle lies on two adjacent islands on the River Len. The castle is surrounded by the waters of River Len; hence, it was used as a fortified fort to house soldiers and ammunition. Complete with four distinct forts, a fortified mill, an old bell, and ancient clock and several arches, this castle has to be one of the best architectural masterpieces throughout history.

Warkworth Castle

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

This is yet another medieval building located in the county of Northumberland. It is a cross-shaped castle located on the hill-top and overlooking the River Coquet. The castle consists of a magnificent gate house, several towers, a kitchen and its pantry, a moat, a chapel and a well-house. Despite being constructed in the mid-12th century, the castle has been tastefully preserved courtesy of the refurbishments done over the years.

Windsor Castle

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

The Windsor Castle located in the Berkshire County was built in the 11th century after the Norman invasion. Today, it is a magnificent castle that is used as the official royal residence. It consists of numerous rooms adorned in royal decorations, beautiful manicured lawns, and magnificent banquet halls. Visitors here are marvelled by the well preserved royal architecture that is one of the landmarks of England.

Corfe Castle

Landscape Architecture in Medieval England

Constructed in the 11th century, The Corfe Castle is a fortification in the county of Dorset. The castle was partially built out of stone at a time when most castles were built out of wood and timber. A stone wall was constructed around the hill in a beautiful manner so as to serve as a fort. Today, the castle stands tall as an important landmark of the rich British history.

Landscape architecture is, therefore, a field that dates back in history as evidenced by the medieval castles in England. Today, the meticulous projects that were implemented years ago still stand tall as a result of the restoration efforts by landscape architects in collaboration with other professionals in this field.

Various Landscaping Architecture Specialty Areas

Various Landscaping Architecture Specialty Areas

In building architecture, the main aspect touches on the architectural design of the buildings. A building should have an architectural plan to ensure that it is unique and catches the eyes of the occupants. In landscaping, it is important to ensure landscaping is done as per the landscaping architectural plan. Therefore, it is important to have a landscaping architecture that will make sure the landscaping is thoroughly and outstandingly done. Before landscaper begins working on the ground, he needs to have a general design of what he/she wants to achieve. This is what acts as a guide in landscaping whenever there it is being done. This is either in roadways, the parks, or also around the buildings. So what is a landscaping architecture?

Definition of Landscaping Architecture

This is an essential step that must be undertaken before ground is broken for any home or office building. The landscapers develop a plan that shows the design of things that are larger than gardens, and also the individual plots. The landscaping architecture will show the typography, the land, and the desired shape of land appearance after the work has been completed. There are different specialty areas that must be incorporated in landscape architecture. These include things like;

Site Planning

Various Landscaping Architecture Specialty Areas

When doing the site planning, it is important that the planner indulges in site planning so as to ensure most efficient use of land. It is a plan that determines the intended use of specific parts of the site. Before indulging in landscaping, a site planning consultant can advise you on the most efficient use of the space available. Without site planning, there is a possibility that the space available will be put into unintended use and thus makes it hard for the landscaper to achieve an excellent plan. However, site planning makes it possible for the landscaper to put into consideration the best use of the available space to achieve good results.

Urban Design

Various Landscaping Architecture Specialty Areas

In any urban centre, it is important to have an urban design that determines how well the urban dwellers will utilise the available space. A specialist in urban design should be consulted so as to ensure there is consideration of the various aspects essential in urban design. Without considering the essential services and recreational facilities, the urban designers will miss the essential bits necessary for development. Therefore, it is important to make sure this is factored when coming up with a city design.

Ecological and Environmental Planning

This is another important aspect of landscaping architecture. This is important in that it ensures there is a good plan of the public places. In landscaping, it is important to factor the existing natural space to make sure the public areas are well structured. This will also factor how to modify the existing space to make sure it is well designed such that it takes care of ecological and environmental factors.

May it be the residential or public place that is undergoing landscaping, it is very important to ensure there is an architectural drawing. This will ensure desired results are achieved.

Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa

At 802 metres, Burj Khalifa is the tallest building in the world. Do you know the second tallest building? It is China’s Shanghai Tower at 632 metres. Construction of the Burj Khalifa started in 2004, and its official opening was in January 2010.

Until its opening, it was known as Burj Dubai. The name changed to honour Khalifa bin Zayed Al Nahyan, the president of the United Arab Emirates. His government lent Dubai tens of billions of dollars at a time the state was deep in debt of about $80 billion. Here are some records it holds: the tallest freestanding structure,  building with the most floors at 211 ( 156 usable floors, 46 spiral floors, two below ground parking levels and nine maintenance levels). It has the highest open observation deck, highest nightclub (144th floor) and restaurant (122nd floor). The following are some of the six world records it holds.

The Tower’s Construction

Burj Khalifa

Excavation started in 2004, and by June 2006, the building had 50 levels. By July 2007 approximately 1,325 days since excavation work, the team had achieved 141 floors to make it the world’s tallest buildings.

Over 110,000 tonnes of concrete were used for the concrete and steel foundation, which consisted of 192 piles buried for more than 50 metres. It also took 22 million person-hours to complete the project. Each day there were about 12,000 workers on sight. The number of engineers and technicians involved was more than 380.

The tower also has the highest installed aluminium and glass façade. The team would install about 20-30 panels per day at the early stages of the project, and they progressed to about 175 panels. About 31,400 metric tonnes of rebar went in the tower.

Build Purpose and Design

Burj Khalifa

Planners first aimed to make the Burj Khalifa entirely residential. However, this changed to accommodate mixed use. Skidmore, Owings, and Merrill came up with the original design. Another major contributor was Fazlur Rahman Khan who invented the bundled tube design. This allowed the building to consume about half of the steel used for the Empire State Building. The inspiration for the design came from Islamic architecture.

It spirals from the ground with mass decreasing as it rises. The model underwent numerous wind tests for maximum performance in the wind. The external cladding composed of aluminium can withstand Dubai hot temperatures. During the construction, the engineers added stainless metal fins to highlight its height.

The design team also solved problems of ventilating the tall building by drawing air at the top of the structure. Other innovations include the condensate recovery system, smart lighting, and energy optimisation systems.

For the last six years, Burj Khalifa has played an increasing role in Dubai’s Tourism and skyline. You can see the building 90 kilometres away, and the sun remains visible to the residents at the top for several minutes after it sets. It is home to the five star Armani Hotel that occupies fifteen floors. The building has swimming pools, 900 private apartments, cooperate suits, 57 elevators and more. From the group floor to the 160th floor, there are 2,909 stairs. Overall, the Burj Khalifa is the masterpiece of the 21st century.

The History of Windsor Castle

The History of Windsor Castle

The Winsor Castle is among the most popular castles in the world.  It is the English royal residence, and ever since it was built, it was associated with advanced architecture and wealth. It is the castle with the longest England royal family occupants in the history of Europe. Windsor is one of the most attractive tourist destinations in England.

The castle is in the district of Maidenhead and Windsor, in Berkshire, an England County. Windsor Castle occupies five hectares of land on a small hill above River Thames south banks. Romans and Celts who protected the area with forts used the location in the past.

William I nicknamed William the conqueror developed the Windsor Castle site. He started building a mound using woods in the year 1070, and the castle was complete after sixteen years. Later, Henry, I became attached to the castle and domesticated his quarters in the castle. He then envisioned the castle becoming the English crown royal home.

Upgrades Made to the Windsor Castle

In the 12th century, Henry II reconstructed the castle from its small and simple architectural design to a magnificent castle. He replaced the original building with a stone round tower and an outside stone curtain wall to the east, north, and south. Later in the 13th century, Henry III completed the wall and changed the castle into a luxurious palace. He constructed the royal chapel currently known as the Albert Memorial.

Furthermore, Edward III redesigned it from being a military fortification to a glorious palace. He made it the most expensive building in Europe as he spent £50,000, more than any English King did spend on a building. The king had a plan to construct a castle that had areas for both official and private use. He built the gatehouse and royal apartments on the northern part of the Quadrangle.

Moreover, the only addition made in the 15th century by Henry VIII was to construct a narrow range on the State Apartments west side, and the gate that has his name. When Elizabeth I stayed at the Windsor Castle, she created an intensive repair program. Elizabeth built a gallery that overlooked the North Terrace. It was later combined with the Royal Library in the 19th century. Both Henry VIII and Elizabeth I, made the palace the heart of the diplomatic entertainment and British crown.

Additionally, the castle was turned into a prison during the English Civil War. It was also the Parliamentary forces military headquarters. In 1660, Charles II reclaimed and rebuilt the castle as a grandest baroque State Apartment. Later on, George III and George IV started the gothic transformation of the palace. They used a significant amount of wealth to redecorate both the interior and the exterior of the castle in a more artistic style.

During World War II, the castle housed the entire royal family. After many years of restoration, the Windsor castle was destroyed by fire in 1992. The fire destroyed the state dining room, grand reception room, private chapel, ceilings, and the Crimson Drawing Room. The rebuilding of the castle started immediately, and some parts were offered to the public.

Landscape Architecture – An Economical Step to a Purified World

Have you ever heard about the amalgamation of landscape and architecture? Well, the concept may although synonymize with beautification, it’s more about the art of unifying man-made structures with natural landscape as well as designs for water, planting, and landform. To be more precise, it relates to the creation of a space, building up an ambiance and developing a brand new public realm within an environmental framework. To make such miracles happen, landscape architects adopt scientific as well as artistic principles in regard to managing, designing, planning, rehabilitating and preserving built and natural environments.

Once a landscape plan is formulated in tune with the architectural sketches, clients get a clear picture of the coming days. In other words, they are assured of not only having developed buildings but several superior end results that would help them do a good deal of cost savings. Landscape architecture, in fact, is highly crucial for the environment, and believe it or not, there are many reasons behind it. Apart from lessening the chances of producing waste and excessive resources, recycling will come into action whenever required. Most importantly, the relationship between environment and its people will be fostered.

With the exorbitant rise of the world’s population, our resources are getting pressurized. Here the landscape architects have a major role to play as they would ensure to reap the following benefits:

Regenerating all polluted areas

Imagine those industrialized areas that have been inflicted with pollution, especially the factories that are actually a key source of economic power. So, even if the factory is gone, it will leave its site unusable for being a bad polluter. However, after the area gets cleaned up, what will fix up things are landscaping and planting.

Preserving nature

Today, the majority prefers living in an environment-friendly ambiance, dotted with trees and plants. In fact, there are several places throughout the world where trees and plants were initially included in their planning. Although the urban areas, nowadays, are found to be set up with wooden decking and concrete flooring, one will always find plants in spaces around them. Where people today have become so much aware of environment preservation, landscape architects can just bring sound solutions to prevalent issues related to environment and can also safeguard ecology along with protecting national treasures.

Ensuring clean water

If there is any prime environmental issue, it is the absence of clean water. In fact, the drastic changes in pollution and climate have largely affected its supply. Wetlands, moreover, have been endangered since they can filter storm-water, regulate floods and comprise biological diversity. So, the benefit of landscape architecture here would be the promotion of more and more wetlands that will result in the provision of managing storm-water naturally.

Purifying the air

It’s true that plants take up all sorts of polluting gases by means of their stomata. With this, the air gets filtered to a good extent and also becomes cleaner. So, where people stay more concerned about the harmful quality of outside air, landscape architecture will take efforts to improve the indoor air quality by filtering it through plants.


Letting hot weather disappear

The saddest part of urban areas of the 21st century is lack of trees and presence of concrete structures. As a result, there is more heat generated owing to the absence of open green spaces. What the landscape architects can do here is that they will build pocket parks to make sufficient shade from the sun, helping the little ones play with peace and the old ones relax.

With these benefits of landscape architecture, some beautiful eco-friendly cities equipped with green, invigorating spaces can be created and that also at minimal expenses.